Mba 1st Sem Notes Free Download 525
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Managing a security operations center (SOC) requires a unique combination of technical knowledge, management skills, and leadership ability. Whether you are looking to build a new SOC or take your current team to the next level, this course provides the right balance of these elements to super-charge your people, tools, and processes. You will learn how to build a high-performing SOC tailored to your organization and the threats it faces. You will be given the tools needed to manage an effective defense, measure progress towards your goals, and build out more advanced processes like threat hunting, active defense, and continuous SOC assessment. Each section includes hands-on labs, introductions to some of the industry's best free and open source tools, and an interactive game in which you will apply your new SOC management skills in real-world scenarios.
Managing a security operations center (SOC) requires a unique combination of technical knowledge, management skills, and leadership ability. Whether you are looking to build a new SOC or take your current team to the next level, this course provides the right balance of these elements to super-charge your people, tools, and processes. You will learn how to build a high-performing SOC tailored to your organization and the threats it faces. You will be given the tools needed to manage an effective defense, measure progress towards your goals, and build out more advanced processes like threat hunting, active defense, and continuous SOC assessment. Each section includes hands-on labs, introductions to some of the industry\'s best free and open source tools, and an interactive game in which you will apply your new SOC management skills in real-world scenarios.
Packet loss measures the fraction of data packets sent that fail to be delivered to the intended destination. Packet loss may affect the perceived quality of applications that do not incorporate retransmission of lost packets, such as phone calls over the Internet, video chat, certain online multiplayer games, and certain video streaming services. During network congestion, both latency and packet loss typically increase. High packet loss degrades the achievable throughput of download and streaming applications. However, packet loss of a few tenths of a percent, for example, is common and is unlikely to affect significantly the perceived quality of most Internet applications.
** Tiers at or near Gigabit speeds were included only in charts showing computed average advertised speeds and not in any charts reflecting actual measured performance in the 2021 reporting period, since most these tiers did not have the sample sizes required by MBA analytical and statistical practice. A Technical Working Group that included the FCC, SamKnows and a number of participating ISPs was created in the previous year to evaluate different test methodologies for reporting for tiers offering 940 Mbps as the advertised download speed. This work and discussions are ongoing, and include the need for upgrade to the test measurement infrastructure, which was delayed due to supply-chain shortages in the wake of the pandemic.
AAs can be seen in Chart 1.1, there is considerable difference between the offered average weighted speed tier by technology. Chart 2 plots the weighted average of the top 80% ISP tiers by technology for the last four years. All technologies showed increases in the set of advertised download speeds by ISPs. For the September-October 2021 period, the weighted mean advertised speeds for DSL technology was 24 Mbps, which lagged considerably behind the weighted mean advertised download speeds for cable and fiber technologies of 305 Mbps and 510 Mbps, respectively. DSL, cable and fiber technologies showed a 16%, 71% and 14% increase, respectively, in weighted mean advertised download speed from 2020 to 2021.
Advertised download speeds may differ from the actual (measured) speeds that subscribers experience. Some ISPs meet network service objectives more consistently than others; some meet such objectives unevenly across their geographic coverage area. Also, speeds experienced by a consumer may vary during the day if the aggregate user demand during busy hours causes network congestion. Unless stated otherwise, the data used in this report is based on measurements taken during peak usage periods, which we define as 7 p.m. to 11 p.m. local time.
The upload speed performance followed a similar trend to the download speed performance, with 6 of the 12 ISP/technologies exceeding their advertised upload speed, and none falling below 90% of the advertised upload speed.
Chart 6 summarizes, for each ISP, the ratio of 80/80 consistent median download speed to advertised download speed, and, for comparison, the ratio of median download speed to advertised download speed shown previously in Chart 4. The ratio of 80/80 consistent median download speed to advertised download speed was less than the ratio of median download speed to advertised download speed for all participating ISPs due to congestion periods when median download speeds were lower than the overall average. The size of the difference between these two ratios is indicative of the variability of median download speed: when the difference between these two ratios is small, the median download speed is fairly insensitive to both geography and time; in contrast, when the difference between the two ratios is large, there is a greater variability in median download speed, either across a set of different locations or across different times during the peak usage period at the same location.
As can be seen in Chart 6, cable and fiber ISPs generally performed better than DSL ISPs with respect to their provision of consistent speeds. Customers of Charter, Comcast, Cox, Mediacom, Optimum, Frontier Fiber, and Verizon, for example, experienced median download speeds that were very consistent; i.e., they provided greater than 95% of the advertised speed during peak usage period to more than 80% of panelists for more than 80% of the time. In particular, Charter, Comcast, Cox, Mediacom and Verizon, provided 100% or greater than their advertised speed during the peak usage period to more than 80% of their panelists for more than 80% of the time. In contrast, the 80/80 consistent download speed for Cincinnati Bell DSL, CenturyLink DSL, and Cincinnati Bell Fiber was 71%, 75% and 60%, respectively, of the advertised speed.
Chart 1.1 above summarizes the weighted average of the advertised download speed offerings for each participating ISP for the last 4 years (September 2018 to September-October 2021), where the weighting is based upon the number of subscribers to each tier, grouped by the access technology used to offer the broadband Internet access service (DSL, cable, or fiber). Only the top 80% tiers (by subscriber number) of each participating ISP were included. Chart 10.1 below shows the corresponding weighted average of the advertised upload speeds among the measured ISPs. The computed weighted average of the advertised upload speed of all the ISPs is 58.4 Mbps; this is a 3% increase from 56.6 Mbps in 2020 and a 91% increase from 30.5 Mbps in 2019.
Observing both the download and upload speeds, it is clear that fiber service tiers are generally symmetric in their actual upload and download speeds. This results from the fact that fiber technology has significantly more capacity than other technologies and can be engineered to have symmetric upload and download speeds. For other technologies with more limited capacity, higher capacity is usually allocated to download speeds than to upload speeds, typically in ratios ranging from 5:1 to 10:1.
Charts 13.1 and 13.2 show the complementary cumulative distribution of the ratio of median download speed (over the peak usage period) to advertised download speed for each participating ISP. For each ratio of measured to advertised download speed on the horizontal axis, the curves show the percentage of panelists, by ISP, who experienced at least this ratio. For example, the curve in Chart 13.1 for Cincinnati Bell fiber shows that 90% of its subscribers experienced a median download speed exceeding 46% of the advertised download speed, 70% experienced a median download speed exceeding 72% of the advertised download speed, and 50% experienced a median download speed exceeding 92% of the advertised download speed. 2b1af7f3a8