Carbon Silicon Free Download
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Later in 2010, their four free digital release albums were removed from their site and released commercially on iTunes and Amazon. The Crackup Suite was retitled The Crackup Suite Parts 1 and 2 and had six additional tracks added to it (four of which were previously unreleased) and Carbon Bubble had two previously unreleased tracks added to it. Since then, Carbon/Silicon has not been active besides a few scattered tours. In early 2013, they commercially released one additional song for download titled Big Surprise (with an accompanying video on YouTube) causing fans to briefly hope that more was to come, but it was only an outtake from their earlier recordings and it appears that nothing else is in the works at the moment.
Carbon/Silicon, the ongoing project from Mick Jones of The Clash, Big Audio Dynamite and Tony James of Generation X have posted their second album for free download. The band, first announced in 2004, had become known for their open policy towards file sharing, making all recordings available freely online and encouraging bootlegging at live performances. The band has four songs available on their myspace page and countless more on their official website.
The specific energy of the existing lithium ion battery cells is limited because intercalation electrodes made of activated carbon (AC) materials have limited lithium ion storage capacities. Carbon nanotubes, graphene, and carbon nanofibers are the most sought alternatives to replace AC materials but their synthesis cost makes them highly prohibitive. Silicon has recently emerged as a strong candidate to replace existing graphite anodes due to its inherently large specific capacity and low working potential. However, pure silicon electrodes have shown poor mechanical integrity due to the dramatic expansion of the material during battery operation. This results in high irreversible capacity and short cycle life. We report on the synthesis and use of carbon and hybrid carbon-silicon nanostructures made by a simplified thermo-mechanical milling process to produce low-cost high-energy lithium ion battery anodes. Our work is based on an abundant, cost-effective, and easy-to-launch source of carbon soot having amorphous nature in combination with scrap silicon with crystalline nature. The carbon soot is transformed in situ into graphene and graphitic carbon during mechanical milling leading to superior elastic properties. Micro-Raman mapping shows a well-dispersed microstructure for both carbon and silicon. The fabricated composites are used for battery anodes, and the results are compared with commercial anodes from MTI Corporation. The anodes are integrated in batteries and tested; the results are compared to those seen in commercial batteries. For quick laboratory assessment, all electrochemical cells were fabricated under available environment conditions and they were tested at room temperature. Initial electrochemical analysis results on specific capacity, efficiency, and cyclability in comparison to currently available AC counterpart are promising to advance cost-effective commercial lithium ion battery technology. The electrochemical performance observed for carbon soot material is very interesting given the fact that its production cost is away cheaper than activated carbon. The cost of activated carbon is about $15/kg whereas the cost to manufacture carbon soot as a by-product from large-scale milling of abundant graphite is about $1/kg. Additionally, here, we propose a method that is environmentally friendly with strong potential for industrialization.
In XRD, the (002) reflection indicates the presence of the benzoic groups that are not forming mid- to short-range ordered structures and they are high density of dangling bonds that contributes to the D band at approximately 1,330/cm. The above description matches with the presence of graphitic structures having a high density of defects. An important characteristic of our CNS is its potential to transform in situ into effective reinforcements, namely, graphene and graphitic carbon, during mechanical milling. In other words, our carbon soot has the ability to induce phase transformations during processing resulting in the synthesis of effective reinforcements that have positive effects on mechanical characteristics that are key for batteries.The SEM micrographs presented in Figure 2 show the composite structures of silicon embedded in carbon nanostructures. In this case, the carbon is acting as a coating over the silicon nanoparticles. This combination is expected because of the high elastic properties of the graphene and graphitic structures that are part of the carbon nanostructures. The rest of the composite is the polymeric binder that is discernible by its fiber appearance. The binder is used to hold the silicon-carbon nanostructures together. The concentration of silicon is evident and the composite with 50 wt% Si clearly shows the presence of a large amount of highly crystalline particles. The silicon is obtained from wafers that are milled to sub-micrometric and nanometric sizes to improve their surface area and hence efficiency to collect lithium.
The electrochemical characterization showing capacity and efficiency along with materials cyclability of the three made battery pouches are presented in Figures 5,6 and7. A typical AC anode has a capacity of 372 mAh/g. The cathode which is made of LiCoO2 powders has a capacity of 140 mAh/g. This cathode drives the capacity of the cell at 100 mAh/g. The fabricated pouch-type cells are also a cathode-limited cell and shows a capacity about 100 mAh/g. The anode made of CNS material only (Figure 5) shows a reversible capacity of 112 mAh/g after the ninth cycle with a coulombic efficiency (CE) of 21% and stabilize after 28 cycles with a reversible capacity of 61 mAh/g with a CE of 30%. Efficiency is calculated as how successfully the capacitance comes close to the value if there was no capacity loss (100% corresponds to no capacity loss). This battery cell which is made of CNS anode shows more or less similar performance to the commercial one which is made of a copper foil coated with activated carbon. The later stabilizes after nine cycles and shows a reversible capacity of 85 mAh/g with a CE of 48% (Figure 6). Blending Si with CNS was expected to increases the overall capacity of the cell as a result of increasing the capacity of the anode material. Anode material made of blended CNS with 20 wt.% silicon stabilizes after 16 cycles and shows less reversible capacity and efficiency after compared to the previous battery cells (Figure 7). The characteristic of a cell containing 50 wt% (not presented) of silicon shows very poor capacity and efficiency. Lower performance of carbon-silicon-based cells is most likely attributed to the larger size of silicon particles as well as the low electrical conductivity of the hybrid carbon-silicon material as a result of oxidation of the silicon particles during the thermo-milling process.
James and Jones began making their songs available on their web site as free downloads in the summer of 2004, and encouraged their fans to record them when they played live and pass those around as well. They've just put out their first full length CD, called The Last Post, but they pledge to keep giving songs away on the internet as well.
Carbon is nonmetal and lead is a typical metal, while silicon and germanium exhibit semiconducting properties. Compounds with hydrogen are stable and common for carbon, but the number of such compounds for silicon and germanium becomes limited, and for lead, only one unstable compound of that type is known. The chemistry of the divalent state is more important for heavier elements and the basicity of oxides increases from carbon to lead. Carbon forms a great number of compounds with different oxidation states. The characteristic feature of carbon is significant stability in both the +4 and -4 valence state compounds. Only the potentials of those compounds of carbon that are traditionally grouped with inorganic substances. The electrode reactions of silicon species are slow under normal conditions, which may follow from the fact that the bonds of silicon with other atoms are quite strong.
(a) A nanodomain model9 for the structure of silicon-oxycarbide. It has three features: a network of graphene that forms a cellular network, silica tetrahedra sequestered wthin the domains and mixed bonds of Si-C-O that decorate the graphene surfaces. (b) First principles computer simulation of the Si, C, O compound shows the separation of graphene from SiO2. Note the presence of bridging mixed-bonds between silicon, carbon and oxygen. Courtesy: Yong-Hyun Kim, Graduate School of Nanoscience and Technology, KAIST, Korea South.
The validity of the graphene network model has been confirmed by molecular dynamics calculations10, as well as by first principles DFT calculations11. One such result is given in Fig. 1(b). It shows the segregation of carbon into graphene and the formation of mixed bonds between it and silicon-based molecules. Other descriptions12,13 of the segregation of carbon in SiCO are essentially consistent with9; however only the latter work presents quantitative predictions of the domain size (as a function of the carbon content) which compare favorably with the measurements by SAXS.
We seek to determine whether or not the amorphous phase of silica in the nanodomain model shown in Fig. 1(a) can be stabilized by the interfacial energy that it forms with graphene, via the mixed bonds between carbon, silicon and oxygen. If the amorphous phase were to crystallize then these mixed bonds will not survive, effectively increasing the interfacial energy in the nanodomain structure. If the domain size is very small, with a high interface to volume ratio, then the interfacial penalty would dominate the gain in the volumetric free energy, thereby stabilizing the amorphous network. 2b1af7f3a8